image

About Thyroid Cancer

According to various studies, more than 42 million people have thyroid cancer in India, which has become a prominent cancer form. The thyroid gland is below Adam’s Apple and secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, metabolism, bone development and body temperature.

Cells of Thyroid Gland:

  • Follicular Cells
  • Parafollicular or C Cells
  • Immune System Cells or Lymphocytes
  • Stromal Cells

Thyroid gland cancer can develop from these cells, like follicular thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma etc.

image

Causes of Thyroid Cancer

  • Three out of four Thyroid cancer patients are females. Thyroid cancers are more common in women.
  • People between 20 to 55 years are more at risk for thyroid cancer.
  • Some thyroid cancers happen due to gene alterations that run in the family.
  • Precancerous polyps in the colon aggravate the chances of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Exposure to radiation at the head and neck increases the chances of follicular thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Use of radiation for therapy in lymphoma disease on the head and neck.
  • Any level and type of radiation exposure can cause thyroid carcinoma.
  • Diet with low iodine and a history of enlarged thyroid or goitre.
  • Race and ethnicity.
image

How can it be prevented

  • Avoid radiation as much as possible, including unnecessary medical imaging
  • Keep track of gene mutations in familial medullary thyroid cancer with genetic tests
  • Consult a specialist doctor for the latest in genetic counselling and genetic tests
  • Self-checks and screening
  • Thyroid ultrasound
  • Eat healthy iodine-rich food
image

Screening

  • Thyroid cancer is usually found during self-checks, ultrasound for other conditions, or checking lumps or swelling on the neck during regular check-ups.
  • Nodes on the thyroid gland can also be noticed during surgery for other conditions.
image

Symptoms & Signs of Thyroid Cancer

Several types of thyroid cancers do not show symptoms and signs at an early stage.

Symptoms start as cancer grows like:

  • A node on the thyroid gland can be felt on the side of the neck
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Difficulty swallowing and swelling in the neck
  • Too much pain in the throat and neck

 

image

Diagnosis


Diagnosis of thyroid cancer includes following tests and procedures:

  • Physical examination of neck to check lumps. They will ask about family history and other risk factors.
  • Blood tests to check blood levels in TSH and hormones generated from the thyroid gland.
  • Ultrasound imaging on the lower part of the neck.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy to extract some cells from the thyroid for specialised testing.
  • Radioactive iodine scan with a special camera to detect cancer cells in the body.
  • MRI, CT scan, Ultrasound, and other required imaging tests.
  • Genetic testing for medullary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma, etc.
image

Types and Staging


Four types of thyroid cancer:

  • Papillary Thyroid Cancer
  • Follicular Thyroid Cancer
  • Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
  • Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid Cancer Stages

Doctors determine the stage based on diagnostic imaging.

Staging is denoted with a number between 1 and 4. Here 1 is the first stage with higher chances of recovery, and 4 is an advanced stage where cancer has spread to other body parts. Anaplastic and medullary thyroid cancers have different stages. Follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment has its own set of stages.

Stages also vary according to the age of the patient.

image

Treatment Modalities for Thyroid Cancer

Six treatment procedures for thyroid cancers:

a. Surgery

It involves one or more of the following procedures:

  • Lobectomy
  • Near-total Thyroidectomy with or without Neck Node Dissection
  • Total Thyroidectomy with or without Neck Node Dissection

b. Internal and external radiation therapy with radioactive iodine procedure

c. Chemotherapy

d. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

e. Targeted therapy

  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

f. Immunotherapy stimulates the immune system to defend against cancer

image

Post Treatment Support

Palliative or supportive care is part of thyroid cancer treatment. It helps cope with cancer treatment’s mental, physical, social, and emotional impact.

Follow-ups and Cancer Care Plan:

  • Ask your doctor for a follow-up plan and never miss a day as cancer has a high chance of recurrence.
  • Stay attentive to any signs and symptoms.
  • Doctors will tell you probable side effects and other things to take care of post-treatment in the maintenance phase.
  • Follow-up appointments include physical evaluation and tests to keep track of recovery.
  • You might have to visit a doctor every six months to a year for check-ups.

image

FAQs

  1. What is papillary carcinoma?

    Papillary carcinoma (PTC) is the most common differentiated thyroid gland cancer.

  2. What are thyroid cancer symptoms in women?

    Thyroid cancer is more prevalent among women. Refer to the symptoms sections above in the passage.

  3. What is medullary carcinoma?

    Medullary carcinoma is a type of thyroid cancer. It grows in the C Cell of the thyroid gland.

  4. What is anaplastic carcinoma?

    Anaplastic carcinoma is also known as undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is an aggressive and rare thyroid tumour. It is deadly and considered one of the most dangerous cancers.

  5. What is follicular carcinoma?

    Follicular carcinoma and follicular adenoma are thyroid tumours generated in follicular cell differentiation. It is a benign encapsulated tumour in the thyroid gland.

Specialized Doctors at M | O | C

  • Dr. Vashistha Pankaj Maniar
    Dr. Vashistha Pankaj Maniar
    M.B.B.S, M.D [ Medicine], D.M( Medical Oncology) , ECMO [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology ]

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Ashish Joshi
    Dr. Ashish Joshi
    M.B.B.S, M.D (Internal Medicine),D.M (Medical Oncology)

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Pritam Baban Kalaskar
    Dr. Pritam Baban Kalaskar
    M.B.B.S, D.M [Medicine], M.D [ Internal Medicine]

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Kshitij Chandrakant Joshi
    Dr. Kshitij Chandrakant Joshi
    M.B.B.S, M.D [Doctor of Medicine),D.M( Doctorate in Medicine),D.N.B( Diplomate of National Board), E.C.M.O( European Certification in Medical Oncology ).

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Oncologist and Hematologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Pradip Kendre
    Dr. Pradip Kendre
    M.B.B.S,D.M [Medicine],D.N.B [Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Udip Maheshwari
    Dr. Udip Maheshwari
    M.B.B.S, D.N.B [Medical oncology], M.D. [Internal Medicine],E.C.M.O [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology ]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist and Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Smit Sheth
    Dr. Smit Sheth
    M.B.B.S, D.M [Medical Oncology], M.D [Medicine], ECMO [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist and Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Sonal Dhande
    Dr. Sonal Dhande
    MBBS, D.N.B [General Medicine], D.N.B [Medical Oncology]

    Speciality-  Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Chandrashekhar Pethe
    Dr. Chandrashekhar Pethe
    M.B.B.S, D.M [Medicine], M.D [Internal Medicine]

    Speciality-  Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Seema Jagiasi
    Dr. Seema Jagiasi
    M.B.B.S, D.N.B [Medical Oncology], D.N.B [General Medicine]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Mangesh Mekha
    Dr. Mangesh Mekha
    M.B.B.S, M.D [Medicine], D.M [Medical Oncology], D.N.B[Medical Oncology],E.C.M.O [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Ritu Dave
    Dr. Ritu Dave
    MBBS, D.N.B [Medical Oncology], D.N.B [General Medicine], E.C.M.O [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Akshay Shivchhand
    Dr. Akshay Shivchhand
    M.B.B.S,M.D [ Medicine], D.M.( Medical Oncology) , ECMO [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Devendra Pal
    Dr. Devendra Pal
    M.B.B.S, M.D [ Medicine], D.N.B. [Medical Oncology], ECMO [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Taha Sethjiwala
    Dr. Taha Sethjiwala
    M.B.B.S , M.D. [Medicine], D.M. [Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Prakash Devde
    Dr. Prakash Devde
    M.B.B.S , M.D. [Medicine], D.M. [Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Makarand Randive
    Dr. Makarand Randive
    M.B.B.S , M.D. [Medicine], D.M. [Medical Oncology], ECMO [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Naganath Narasimhan Prem
    Dr. Naganath Narasimhan Prem
    MBBS, MD(Geriatric Medicine), CERT. COURCE IN PALLIATIVE CARE, ADVANCED COURSE IN GERIATIC ONCOLOGY

    Speciality- Geriatrician/Elder Care Specialist Physician.

    Know More
  • Dr. Krushna Chaudhari
    Dr. Krushna Chaudhari
    M.B.B.S, D.N.B. [Internal Medicine], D.N.B. [Medical Oncology], E.C.M.O [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology]

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist & Hemato-Oncologist

    Know More
  • Dr. Carthikeyan
    Dr. Carthikeyan
    M.B.B.S, M.D [ RT], DNB[RT], D.M [Medical Oncology],M.R.C.P, ECMO [ European Society Certification in Medical Oncology ]

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Ashray Shrikant Kole
    Dr. Ashray Shrikant Kole
    M.B.B.S, M.D [ Medicine], PDF (Clinical Hematology - CMC Vellore)

    Speciality- Hematologist Oncologist

    Know More
  • Dr. Pravin Khandare
    Dr. Pravin Khandare
    M.B.B.S, M.D [ Medicine], D.M( Medical Oncology)

    Speciality- Medical Oncology

    Know More
  • Dr Kunal N. Jobanputra
    Dr Kunal N. Jobanputra
    MBBS, MD (Internal Medicine), DM (Medical Oncology), ECMO (European Society Certification in Medical Oncology)

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist and Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr Nitin Bayas
    Dr Nitin Bayas
    M.B.B.S, DNB (Internal Medicine) , DNB (Medical Oncology)

    Speciality- Medical Oncologist and Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr. Ravikumar Wategaonkar
    Dr. Ravikumar Wategaonkar
    M.B.B.S, M.D [ Medicine], D.M( Medical Oncology)

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr.Asmita Pethe
    Dr.Asmita Pethe
    (MD, FELLOW HEMATO-PATH)

    Speciality- consultant Pathology

    Know More
  • Dr. Suraj Chiraniya
    Dr. Suraj Chiraniya
    M.B.B.S, M.D (Medicine), D.M (Clinical Haematology and BMT, CMC Vellore)

    Speciality- Medical and Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist.

    Know More
  • Dr Chirantan Bose
    Dr Chirantan Bose
    M.D, MBA, M.S (Molecular Oncology)

    Speciality- Molecular and Precision Oncology

    Know More

Find the nearest center

Cancer Centres

Mumbai
Other Locations

Cancer Clinics

15 Centers in Western India
3 Cancer Clinics

Borivali

+91 9920767626

Book Your Appointment

appointment
Condition Type

    loader
    moc logo

    Please rotate your device

    We do not support landscape mode,
    please use the website in the portrait mode for best experience.